Articles relevant to rectal toxicity in prostate cancer treatment:

Sandler HM, McLaughlin PW, Ten Haken RK, et al.
Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer: Low risk of chronic rectal morbidity observed in a large series of patients.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995; 33:797– 801.

Boersma LJ, van den Brink M, Bruce AM, et al.
Estimation of the incidence of late bladder and rectum complications after high-dose (70–78 Gy) conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, using dose–volume histograms.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998;41:83–92

Schultheiss TE, Lee WR, Hunt MA, et al.
Late GI and GU complications in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;37:3–11

Hartford AC, Niemierko A, Adams JA, et al.
Conformal irradiation of the prostate: Estimating long-term rectal bleeding risk using dose–volume histograms
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996;36:721–730.

Lawton CA, Won M, Pilepich MV, et al.
Long-term treatment sequelae following external beam irradiation for adenocarcinoma of the prostate: Analysis of RTOG studies 7506 and 7706.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991;21:935–939

Dale E, Olsen DR, Fossa SD.
Normal tissue complication probabilities correlated with late effects in the rectum after prostate conformal radiotherapy.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999;43:385–391.

Benk, V. A.; Adams, J. A.; Shipley, W. U.; Urie, M. M.; McManus, P. L.; Efird, J. T.; Willett, C. G.; Goitein, M.
Late rectal bleeding following combined X-ray and proton high dose irradiation for patients with stages T3-T4 prostate carcinoma.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 26551-557; 1993

Smit, W. G.; Helle, P. A.; van Putten, W. L.; Wijnmaalen, A. J.; Seldenrath, J. J.; van der Werf-Messing, B. H.
Late radiation damage in prostate cancer patients treated by high dose external radiotherapy in relation to rectal dose.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18:23-29; 1990

Hanks, G. E.; Schultheiss, T. E.; Hunt, M. A.; Epstein, B.
Factors influencing incidence of acute grade II morbidity in conformal and standard radiation treatment of prostate cancer.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 31:25-29; 1995.

Late rectal bleeding after conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. II. Volume effects and dose-volume histograms.
Jackson A, Skwarchuk MW, Zelefsky MJ, Cowen DM, Venkatraman ES, Levegrun S, Burman CM, Kutcher GJ, Fuks Z, Liebel SA, Ling CC.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001 Mar 1;49(3):685-98.
PMID: 11172950

Late rectal toxicity after conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer (I): multivariate analysis and dose-response.
Skwarchuk MW, Jackson A, Zelefsky MJ, Venkatraman ES, Cowen DM, Levegrün S, Burman CM, Fuks Z, Leibel SA, Ling CC.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000 Apr 1;47(1):103-13.
PMID: 10758311

Significant correlation between rectal DVH and late bleeding in patients treated after radical prostatectomy with conformal or conventional radiotherapy (66.6-70.2 Gy).
Cozzarini C, Fiorino C, Ceresoli GL, Cattaneo GM, Bolognesi A, Calandrino R, Villa E.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Mar 1;55(3):688-94.
PMID: 12573756

Impact of volume and location of irradiated rectum wall on rectal blood loss after radiotherapy of prostate cancer.
Koper PC, Heemsbergen WD, Hoogeman MS, Jansen PP, Hart GA, Wijnmaalen AJ, van Os M, Boersma LJ, Lebesque JV, Levendag P.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Mar 15;58(4):1072-82.
PMID: 15001247

Finding dose-volume constraints to reduce late rectal toxicity following 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer.
Greco C, Mazzetta C, Cattani F, Tosi G, Castiglioni S, Fodor A, Orecchia R.
Radiother Oncol. 2003 Nov;69(2):215-22.
PMID: 14643961

Dose/volume relationship of late rectal bleeding after external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: absolute or relative rectal volume?
Kupelian PA, Reddy CA, Carlson TP, Willoughby TR.
Cancer J. 2002 Jan-Feb;8(1):62-6.
PMID: 11895204

Relationships between DVHs and late rectal bleeding after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: analysis of a large group of patients pooled from three institutions
Fiorino C, Cozzarini C, Vavassori V, Sanguineti G, Bianchi C, Cattaneo GM, Foppiano F, Magli A, Piazzolla A.
Radiother Oncol. 2002 Jul;64(1):1-12.
PMID: 12208568

Comparison of rectal dose-wall histogram versus dose-volume histogram for modeling the incidence of late rectal bleeding after radiotherapy.
Tucker SL, Dong L, Cheung R, Johnson J, Mohan R, Huang EH, Liu HH, Thames HD, Kuban D.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Dec 1;60(5):1589-601.
PMID: 15590191

Rectal dose-volume constraints in high-dose radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer.
Fiorino C, Sanguineti G, Cozzarini C, Fellin G, Foppiano F, Menegotti L, Piazzolla A, Vavassori V, Valdagni R.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Nov 15;57(4):953-62.
PMID: 14575825

Late rectal toxicity: dose-volume effects of conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
Huang EH, Pollack A, Levy L, Starkschall G, Dong L, Rosen I, Kuban DA.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Dec 1;54(5):1314-21.
PMID: 12459352

Incidence of late rectal bleeding in high-dose conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer using equivalent uniform dose-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability models.
Söhn M, Yan D, Liang J, Meldolesi E, Vargas C, Alber M.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Mar 15;67(4):1066-73. Epub 2007 Jan 26.
PMID: 17258870

Localized volume effects for late rectal and anal toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
Peeters ST, Lebesque JV, Heemsbergen WD, van Putten WL, Slot A, Dielwart MF, Koper PC.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Mar 15;64(4):1151-61. Epub 2006 Jan 18.
PMID: 16414208

Statistical analysis of dose-volume and dose-wall histograms for rectal toxicity following 3D-CRT in prostate cancer.
García-Vicente F, Zapatero A, Floriano A, Cruz-Conde A, Perez L, Marín A, Mínguez C, Torres JJ.
Med Phys. 2005 Aug;32(8):2503-9.
PMID: 16193780

Preliminary evaluation of low-grade toxicity with conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 9406 dose levels I and II.
Michalski JM, Winter K, Purdy JA, Wilder RB, Perez CA, Roach M, Parliament MB, Pollack A, Markoe AM, Harms W, Sandler HM, Cox JD.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 May 1;56(1):192-8.
PMID: 12694838

Three-dimensional conformal therapy or standard irradiation in localized carcinoma of prostate: preliminary results of a nonrandomized comparison.
Perez CA, Michalski JM, Purdy JA, Wasserman TH, Williams K, Lockett MA.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000 Jun 1;47(3):629-37.
PMID: 10837945

Toxicity after three-dimensional radiotherapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 9406 dose Level V.
Michalski JM, Winter K, Purdy JA, Parliament M, Wong H, Perez CA, Roach M, Bosch W, Cox JD.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005 Jul 1;62(3):706-13.
PMID: 15936549

Comparison of late rectal toxicity from conventional versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: analysis of clinical and dosimetric factors.
Lee CM, Lee RJ, Handrahan DL, Sause WT.
Urology. 2005 Jan;65(1):114-9. Review.
PMID: 15667875

Rectal bleeding after hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: correlation between clinical and dosimetric parameters and the incidence of grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding.
Akimoto T, Muramatsu H, Takahashi M, Saito J, Kitamoto Y, Harashima K, Miyazawa Y, Yamada M, Ito K, Kurokawa K, Yamanaka H, Nakano T, Mitsuhashi N, Niibe H.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Nov 15;60(4):1033-9.
PMID: 15519772

Correlations between dose-surface histograms and the incidence of long-term rectal bleeding following conformal or conventional radiotherapy treatment of prostate cancer.
Fenwick JD, Khoo VS, Nahum AE, Sanchez-Nieto B, Dearnaley DP.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001 Feb 1;49(2):473-80.
PMID: 11173143

Escalated-dose versus standard-dose conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer: first results from the MRC RT01 randomised controlled trial.
Dearnaley DP, Sydes MR, Graham JD, Aird EG, Bottomley D, Cowan RA, Huddart RA, Jose CC, Matthews JH, Millar J, Moore AR, Morgan RC, Russell JM, Scrase CD, Stephens RJ, Syndikus I, Parmar MK; RT01 collaborators.
Lancet Oncol. 2007 Jun;8(6):475-87.
PMID: 17482880

Phase III pilot study of dose escalation using conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer: PSA control and side effects.
Dearnaley DP, Hall E, Lawrence D, Huddart RA, Eeles R, Nutting CM, Gadd J, Warrington A, Bidmead M, Horwich A.
Br J Cancer. 2005 Feb 14;92(3):488-98.
PMID: 15685244

Comparison of radiation side-effects of conformal and conventional radiotherapy in prostate cancer: a randomised trial.
Dearnaley DP, Khoo VS, Norman AR, Meyer L, Nahum A, Tait D, Yarnold J, Horwich A.
Lancet. 1999 Jan 23;353(9149):267-72.
PMID: 9929018

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